Abnormal Psychology Disorders

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders. It studies behavioral patterns of a person, and determines whether they are normal or not. People with abnormal psychological patterns are said to suffer from mental disorders. These are of different types and manifest themselves into different symptoms. This article will give you a list of these disorders and the category that they fall into as per the codes of the fifth edition of American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (abbreviated as DSM-5) that was released on May 18, 2013.
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
These disorders are the ones with an onset in the developmental period of a child, and they impair the normal functioning of an individual.

  1. Intellectual Disabilities:
    • Intellectual disability (or Intellectual developmental disorder)
    • Global developmental delay
    • Unspecified intellectual disability ( or Intellectual developmental disorder
  2. Communication Disorders:
    • Language disorder
    • Speech sound disorder
    • Childhood-onset fluency disorder (commonly known as stuttering)
    • Social communication disorder
    • Unspecified communication disorder
  3. Autism Spectrun Disorder
  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):
    • Combined presentation
    • Predominantly inattentive presentation
    • Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation
    • Other specified attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder
    • Unspecified attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder
  5. Specific Learning Disorder:
    • Impairment in reading
    • Impairment in written expression
    • Impairment in mathematics
  6. Motor Disorders:
    • Developmental coordination disorder
    • Stereotypic movement disorder
    • Tourette’s disorder
    • Chronic motor/vocal tic disorder
    • Provisional tic disorder
    • Other specified tic disorder
    • Unspecified tic disorder
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
The disorders in this category are characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and thinking patterns, abnormal motor behavior, and reduced emotional expression. Following are the different types of mental abnormalities in this category. Remember that all these disorders manifest themselves into different symptoms, and they also have a varying severity.

  1. Delusional disorder
  2. Brief psychotic disorder
  3. Schizophreniform disorder
  4. Schizophrenia
  5. Schizoaffective disorder
    • Bipolar type
    • Depressive type
  6. Substance/Medication-induced psychotic disorder
  7. Psychotic disorder due to another medical condition
  8. Catatonia
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Bipolar disorder is characterized by massive shifts in mood from mania to depression in an individual over a period of time. A bipolar person may also experience a mixed state, wherein he/she displays the symptoms of both mania and depression at the same time, accompanied by extreme agitation. The other type in this category is unipolar disorder, which is marked by a permanent or intermittent state of either mania or depression.
Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
This category contains psychological disorders that are caused due exposure to traumatic or catastrophic events, like death of a loved one, accident, rape, etc.

  1. Reactive attachment disorder
  2. Disinhibited social engagement disorder
  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  4. Acute stress disorder
  5. Adjustment disorder:
    • With depressed mood
    • With anxiety
    • With mixed anxiety and depressed mood
    • With disturbance of conduct
    • With mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct
    • Unspecified
  6. Other specified trauma and stress-related disorder
  7. Unspecified trauma and stress-related disorder
Dissociative Disorders
These type of psychological disorders are characterized by disruptions or gaps in the normal integration of subjective experience resulting in abnormal patterns of affect, memory, and behavior.

  1. Dissociative identity disorder (also known as Multiple personality disorder)
  2. Dissociative amnesia
  3. Depersonalization/Derealization disorder
  4. Other specified dissociative disorder
  5. Unspecified dissociative disorder
Elimination Disorders
These disorders involve the inappropriate elimination of urine or feces, and are usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. These generally manifest themselves into bed-wetting or “letting go” when not in the toilet. There are three types of elimination disorders:

  1. Enuresis
  2. Encopresis
  3. Other specified elimination disorder
Gender Dysphoria
This is the normal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe people who experience significant discontent with the gender they were assigned at birth and/or the roles associated with that gender. This is not just a psychological disorder, as research has suggested that it may also be due to their genetics, the makeup of their brains, or prenatal exposure to hormones.
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders
This category of psychological disorders causes a person to violate the rights of others and/or cause significant conflict with the society or draw the attention of authority figures. It contains the following types:

  1. Oppositional defiant disorder
  2. Intermittent explosive disorder:
    • Childhood-onset type
    • Adolescent-onset type
    • Unspecified onset
  3. Antisocial personality disorder
  4. Pyromania
  5. Kleptomania
  6. Other specified disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorder
  7. Unspecified disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorder
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
This is a condition (such as intoxication, harmful use/abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and psychoses or amnesia associated with the use of substance) associated with substance abuse, often involving maladaptive behavior over a long period of time. There are following three types of this condition:

  1. Alcohol-related disorder
  2. Caffeine-related disorder
  3. Cannabis-related disorder
Personality Disorders
These are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and affect, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual’s culture. There are following types in this category:

  1. Cluster A Personality Disorders:
    • Paranoid Personality disorder
    • Schizoid personality disorder
    • Schizotypal personality disorder
  2. Cluster B Personality Disorders:
    • Antisocial personality disorder
    • Borderline personality disorder
    • Histrionic personality disorder
    • Narcissistic personality disorder
  3. Cluster C Personality Disorders:
    • Avoidant personality disorder
    • Dependent personality disorder
    • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Paraphilic Disorders
These are marked by an intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals. This type of behavior is illegal in many jurisdictions. Following are the types of paraphilia as described in DSM-5:

  1. Voyeuristic disorder
  2. Exhibitionistic disorder
  3. Frotteuristic disorder
  4. Sexual masochism disorder
  5. Sexual sadism disorder
  6. Pedophilic disorder
  7. Fetishistic disorder
  8. Transvestic disorder
  9. Other specified paraphilic disorder
  10. Unspecified paraphilic disorder
This list shows us the unique ways in which our psyche can function. Though the treatment for these exists, it can never really help in case of some people. Some of these mental disorders have also driven many to suicide or rendered them non-functional in normal day-to-day life. The best bet for a person suffering from any of these is to consult a psychiatrist.
Note: This article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for the advice of a mental health expert.